Transcendental Algebra

Foreword

In 2003, Ksenia Gilyarova wrote a problem about a constructed writing system known as Transcendental Algebra, created by Jacob Linzbach, for the first International Linguistics Olympiad. An easily understandable and accessible resource documenting the details of this language has since been unavailable to years of subsequent IOL contestants. 14 years later, we have located a copy of Linzbach's original book Transcendent algebra, ideografie matematical, experiment de un lingue filosofic, transcribed it, and translated it to English for the benefit of anyone interested in learning more about Linzbach's work.

The book is written in an early version of an international auxiliary language called Occidental—later renamed Interlingue—which was created by Edgar de Wahl. As Linzbach published his book in 1921 a year before Wahl published the official book on Occidental in 1922, some of the word forms and usage do not match what is documented in other resources, of which there are few. Nevertheless, our interpretation of the book is, we hope, as close as possible to Linzbach's original ideas. He also included a 2-page inset giving examples of Transcendental Algebra statements and their translations in German, French, Russian, and Estonian; we have transcribed these examples as well and translated them to English.

We hope you find the following transcription and translation of Transcendent algebra to be as interesting as we did, as well as informative and helpful in learning about Linzbach's "philosophical language".

Chuanshu Jiang (IOL team Australia 2017)
Andrew Tockman (IOL team USA 2017)
contact / comments / feedback: transalg@protonmail.com


Table of contents

Author's note
Introduction
Symbolics
Addition
Subtraction
Multiplication
Division
Exponentiation
Radication
Interpretation of all exponents
Logarithms
Equations
Conclusion
Some examples

Author's noteDe autor

The present printed brochure is extracted from detailed work.

Li present brochur autolitografic es extract ex detaliat labor.

Desiring to inform the European reader of this new problem,

Desirante informar li letor European peri ti nov poblema,

I have asked the well-known linguist Mr. Edgar de Wahl to translate the text of this brochure

mi ha petit li conosset cosmoglottist sr. E. de Wahl traducter li textu de ti ci brochur

to his universal auxiliary language “Occidental”,

in composit de il lingue universal auxiliari "Occidental",

which being based on roots and suffixes extracted from international words,

quel essent basat sur radicas e suffixes, extractet de paroles international,

and combined for maximum simplicity of grammar and word formation,

e combinat per max simplic grammatica e parolformation,

is comprehensible without study to every person of western civilization.

es comprensibil sin studia a omni hom de occidental civilisation.

As a result there has appeared an interesting symbiosis of two artificial languages:

In resultat ha apparet un symbiose interessant de du lingues artifical:

one constructed language, aspiring to the role of international auxiliary language,

un pasilalie, aspirant ad role de auxiliari lingue international,

and a prospective constructed script, which is, like mathematics, a common language;

e un pasigrafie, volent esser, quem matematica, un lingue commun;

the expressions of one language explain here the expressions of another.

li expressiones de un lingue explica ci li expressiones del altri.

I will be grateful to the reader for communication of remarks.

Mi va esser mersios al letor por communication de remarcas.

Jacob Linzbach.

Jacob Linzbach.

IntroductionIntroduction

Leibniz writes:

Leibniz scri:

"A part of the secret of the success of algebra consists in its characteristic;

"Un part del secrete del success de algebra consiste in su caracteristica,

that is, in the art of utilizing symbols.

i.e. in arte utilisar symboles.

Therefore there appears the possibility to imagine the creation of new algorithms,

Pro to appare possibilitia imaginar li creation de nov algoritmes,

of new algebras, which study other relations too, different than relations between quantities.

de nov algebras, studiant anque altri relationes, different de relationes inter quantitas.

Furthermore, there appears the hope of reducing all thoughts to a combination of characters,

Mem plu, -- appare li espera reducter omni consideration a un combination de signes,

and there appears the possibility of pondering over a time when two philosophers, like two mathematicians,

e appare possibilita meditar super tel tempor quande du filosofos, simil du matematicos,

instead of [having] infinite disputes, will take pens in hands and, sitting at a table, will replace disputes with calcuation.

in vice de infinit disputes va prender plumes in manus e sedent ad table va vicear disput per calculation.

The common mathematics transforms itself thus in calculation of thoughts (calculus ratiocinator) and conflates itself with logic."

Li commun matematica transforma-se talmen in calcul de considerationes (calculus ratiocinatus) e confunde con logical."

This problem of universal mathematics is solved by transcendental algebra.

Ti ci problema de universal matematica es solvet per transcendent algebra.

SymbolicsSymbolica

To constant quantities a, b, c, d… correspond in transcendent algebra definite concepts represented by figures, for example:

A quantitas constant a, b, c, d… corresponde in transcendent algebra definit conceptiones, representat per figures, por exemple:

Variable quantities x, y, z, t… represent themselves with symbols:

Quantitas variabil x, y, z, t… representa se per schemas:

Beyond figures and symbols, also used are numbers 1, 2, 3, 4… and letters a, b, c, d…, x, y, z, t…

Ultra figures e schemas es usat anque cifres 1, 2, 3, 4… e litteres a, b, c, d…, x, y, z, t…

Figures, symbols, numbers and letters join themselves using mathematical characters:

Figures, schemas, cifres e litteres junte se per matematical signes:

Concepts that are not able to be expressed immediately [through basic combinations of glyphs] represent themselves by means of mathematical operations.

Concepiones, ne possent esser expresset inmediatnen, representase por medie de matematical operationes.

In calculation of concepts the value of all the laws of common algebra is conserved.

In calculation de conceptiones conserva valor omni leges de algebra commun.

The results of calculations are found intuitively by way of method of interpretation, used in philosophy.

Li resultates del calcul es trovat intuitivnen per medie de metode de interpretation, usat in filosofie.

AdditionAddition

plus, and, with, present

plus, e, con, presentie

horse and cow

cavall e vacca

domestic animals

animales domestic

animals

animales

carpentry tools

instrumentes de carpintero

stars

sideres

I, you, and he/she

mi, tu e il

house #1 and house #2

dom № 1 e dom № 2

June 9th, 1874

9 Juni 1874

big house and small house

granddom e dometto

giant and dwarf

gigant e pigméo

man with umbrella

homo con parapluvie

SubtractionSubtraction

Subtraction is the reciprocal operation to addition.

Subtraction es operation reciproc a addition.

minus, without, not, absent

minus, sin, ne, absentie

fat with skinny without skinny is fat

grossi con tenui sin tenui es grossi

long

long

curved

curb

heavy

ponderos

longer

plu long

car body/box

carrebux

walls

mures

body, trunk, torso

corpor, trunc, torso

Impossibility of subtraction of negative concepts:

Impossibilitá de subtraction da negativ conceptiones:

person

homo

person with umbrella

homo con parapluvie

person without umbrella (during rain)

homo sin parapluvie (durante pluvie)

person without heart

homo sin cordie

person with absence of heart is person without heart

homo con absentie de cordie es homo sin cordie

person not without heart is person with heart

homo ne sin cordie es homo con cordie

I, not I, rest of the world

mi, ne mi, mundi

me without you, solitude

mi sin tu, solitaritá

present without future, is not hope

present sin futur, ne es espera

right without left, absence of symmetry

destri sin left, absentie de symmetrie

inside without being outside, state of lacking freedom

intern sin esser extern, statu de inliberitá

blind

ciec

open

apert

Algebraic addition of figures with symbols, letters, and numbers:

Addition algebraic de figures con schemas, litteres e cifres:

the book is on the table

libre es sur table

under the book is the table

sub libre es table

on, not on

sur, ne sur

not on, under

ne sur, sub

on the table, not on the book, under the book

sur table, ne sur [libre], sub libre

the mill is behind the house, in front of the mill is the house

molino es dope de dom, avan molino es dom

the mill is in front of and to the right of the house, the house is behind and to the left of the mill

molino es avan destre de dom, dom es dope left de molino

not in front of means behind

ne avan significa dope

I am in the house

mi es in dom

around me is the house

circum mi es dom

outside of me is the house

extern mi es dom

the bench is between the house and the tree

banc es inter dom e arbor

next to the bench is the house and the tree

apu banc es dom e arbor

Algebraic, using letters:

Algebraic, per litteres:

the bench is to the right of the house and to the left of the tree

banc es destre de dom e left de arbor

to the left and to the right of the bench are the house and the tree

a left e a destre de banc es dom e arbor

15 of some units away from the house

alqui 15 unités distant de dom

from the house

de dom

to the house

ad dom, til dom

from the heart

de cordie

to the heart

ad cordie, til cordie

from above, to above

de supre, ad supre

MultiplicationMultiplication

A. Multiplication of figures by numbers.

A. Multiplication de figures per número.

three horses

tri cavalles

100 houses

100 domes

houses, trees, people, horses

domes, arbores, homos, cavalles

7 days is a quarter of a month, a week

7 dies es ¼ mensu, seman

weeks

semanes

12 hours is half a day

12 hores es demi die

365 days is a year

365 dies es un annu

years, times

annus, tempores

B. Multiplication of figures by figures

B. Multiplication de figures per figures

Professor John Perry writes the following on the multiplication of vector quantities in his ‘Practical Mathematics’:

Professor John Perry scri in su Practical Matematica peri multiplication de quantitas vectora secuent:

If I were asked to multiply 2 tables by 3 chairs I would not refuse; I would say,

"Si on va petir me multiplicar 2 stules per 3 tables, mi ne var refusar; mi var dir,

6 chair-tables. But if I were asked to say what I mean by a chair-table, I would refuse to answer

que to var esser 6 stulotables. Ma mi va refusar respoder, quo esse stulotable,

because nobody has ever given a meaning to the term.

Proque ancor nequi ha provat attribuer qualcunc signification a tal termin.

But I do know that when this sort of thing comes into a Physical Problem,

Tamen mi save que tal productes recontra se in solution de problemas fisical,

we can always give a useful meaning.

e li termines correspondent sempre recive un util logical signification.

This is beyond ordinary Algebra,

Ti considerationes sta ultra limites de algebra commun,

and yet our processes are carried on by the rules of Algebra.

quancam li process self de calculation es operat segun regules de algebra.

Please observe, that I do not say that 2 tables x 3 chairs = 2 chairs x 3 tables.

Ples remarcar, que mi ne posse asserter que 2 tables x 3 stules = 2 stules x 3 tables.

Whether this is or is not true, depends on the meaning we attach to the whole process."

To depende del sense, quel noi attribue al tut process.”

Here is a visual interpretation of this problem:

Ec un aspectiv interpretation de ti problema:

6 places (to sit on a chair at the table)

6 plazzes (por seder sur stul ad table)

Variant interpretation:

Interpretation variabil:

6 places, place

6 plazzes, plazz

Other examples:

Altri exemples:

strength of light of 150 candelas

fortie de luce 150 candeles

[amount of] work of 50 horse-drawn carriages [50 horsepower]

laboreffect de 50 carretades

100 plates served to guests

cent plates servit a hospites

work, laziness [quality of not working]

labor, deslaboritá

armed forces, armed forces armed in different ways

fortie armat, f.a. de armatur different

marriage, celibacy

mariagie, celibatu

widower

viduagie de marito

widow

viduagie de marita

polygamy, polyandry

polygamie, polyandrie

6 marriages

6 maritagies

family, not-family

familie, ne-familie

family without children

familie sin infantes

being orphaned

orfanagie

friendship

amicitá, amicagie

company

companie

society

societé

eating [is taking place], no eating

manjada, nemanjada

starvation, no eating due to lack of food

fame, nemanjada pro manca de pan

abundance, no eating from lack of eating, nobody to eat

abundantie, nemanjada pro manca de manjant, nequi por manjar

The product is a function of factors.

Product es function de factores.

Multiplication creates from given concepts a new one of greater reach/capacity, for example:

Muliplication crea ex dat conceptiones un nov de plugrand capacitá, p.e.:

man, pipe, smoking

homo, pip, fumada

drunkenness, sobriety

ebrietá, sobrietá

meal, nutrition

nutritura, nutrition

wine, beer, water

vin, bir, aqua

agronomy

agronomie

commerce, carpentry

commercie, carpinterie

astronomy, philosophy

astronomie, filosofie

acquaintance

conossentie

world, universe

mundi, cosmo

reading (matter), writing, illiteracy

letura, scritura, analfabetism

aviation

aviation

conversation, speech

conversation, parla

silence, monologue

silentie, monolog

thinking is talking

pensada es parlada

C. Multiplication of figures by symbols and letters

C. Multiplication de figures per schemas e litteres

head, body, torso, forehead

cap, córpor, torso, front

chin, nape, height

menton, nuc, altore

base (of triangle), cathetus [leg]

bas (de triangul), cathete

seed, room, court[yard]

sem, chambre, curt

D. Multiplication of symbols by symbols

D. Multiplication de schemas per schemas

square, parallelogram, cube

quadrat, parallelogramm, cub

prism, cylinder, ellipsoid

prisma, cylindrtion, ellipsoid

communication, concentration

communication, concentra[-tion]

oscillation, perforation

oscillation, perforation

DivisionDivision

A. Division of figures by numbers

A. Division de figures per números

The operation is reduced to multiplication by the reciprocal number:

Li operation es reductet ad multiplication per numer reciproc:

half-house, flank [wings]

demidom, flanc

hour

hor

B. Division of figures by figures

B. Division de figures per figures

Division is the reciprocal operation to multiplication. The meanings of the reciprocals

Division es operation reciproc a multiplication. A significationes reciproc

correspond to the concepts of total and fractional, for example:

corresponde conceptiones total e fractional, p.e.:

whole house, some part of house

dom integri, alqui part de dom

part of house, namely the window

part de dom, nominat fenestre

window, of house

fenestre, de dom

roof of house, walls of house

tecte de dom, mures de dom

head of horse, neck of horse

cap de cavall, col de cavall

mane of horse, body of horse

crinage de c., corpor de cav.

feet of horse, hoof of horse

pedes de cav., huf de cav.

knee of horse, chest of horse

genu de c., pector de c.

Division creates from given concepts a new one of lesser reach/capacity

Division crea ex dat conceptiones un nov de minu grand capacita

by the adding of attributes in the form of the denominator:

per adjuntion de attributes in form de nominator:

houses in general, every house

dom in general, chascun d.

horse's house, a special case of the concept of houses

dom de cavall, un casu partial del conception dom

some person, one person

alqui hom, un hom

person of the pipe, smoker

hom de pipe, fumator

room

chambre

room of smoking, smoking room

chambre de fumation, fumatoria

nesting bird, cuckoo

avio nidant, cucú

bottom window

fenestre de bass

tomorrow

deman

yesterday

yer

woman of man, married woman

femina de mascul, femina maritat

man of woman, married man

mascul de femina, mascul maritat

husband, wife, children

marito, marita, infantes

father and mother are parents

patre e matre es genitores

brother, sister

fratre, sestra

head of man

cap de homo

person of head, leader, a special case of the concept of person

homo de cap, chef, un casu partial del conception homo

people in general, every person

homo in general, chascun h.

single person, individual

homo singul, individue

ExponentiationPotentiation

Exponentiation is a function of figures, signifying the representation of an event in cinematographic form:

Potentie es un function de figur, significant representation de eveniment in form cinematografic:

flight

vol, volagie

oscillation

oscilllation

walking

marcha

Moments of the event are factors.

Momentes de eveniment es factores.

The product in the sense of the exponentiation is a representation of the event.

Product in sens de potentie es representation de eveniment.

The number of moments or the exponent of the exponentiation signifies fluctuation (rhythm) of the event:

Numero de momentes o exponent de potentie significa fluxion (rithm) de eveniment:

life

vive

talking, pronunciation

parla, pronunciation

writing

scrition

knitting

tricotagie

Elevation of a figure in total exponentiation signifies an event,

Elevation de figur in total potentie significa un eveniment,

coming from the given concept, as of subject, for example:

exfluent del dat conception, quam de subyect, p.e.:

forge hammer, forging

martell forge, forgeada

RadicationRadication

Radication is the reciprocal operation to exponentiation.

Radication es operation recproc a potentiation.

bird, person

avio, homo

feet, pendulum

pedes, pendul

Extraction of the root, or elevation to a fractional exponent

Extraction de radica, o elevation in fractional potentie

signifies an event, guiding to the given concept, as of object, for example:

significa un eveniment, ductent al dat conception, quam ad obyect, p.e.:

making of an envelope

fabrication de covert

growth of a tree

cresentation de arbor

maturing of a fruit

maturijation de fruct

beginning of a day, sunrise

comensa de die, aurore

beginning of a night, sunset

comensa de nocte, purpur de vespere

birth

nascentie

beginning of puberty

comensa de pubertá

Interpretation of all exponentsInterpretation de omni potenties

A. Numerical exponents

A. Potenties numeral.

a) Positive exponents from 0 to infinity.

a) Potenties positiv de 0 ad ∞.

beginning, principle, idea, material, etc. of an object

comensa, principe, idee[,] materiale ec. de obyect

process of becoming, preparation, origin of the object

processe de devenition, preparation, origina del obyect

the object itself, object as such, the object exists

obyect self, obyect quam tal, obyect existe

function of an object

function del obyect

end of an object, in the sense of transubstantiation in a product, relative to which the object itself appears as the material

fine de obyect, in sense de transsubstantation in un product, relativa quel l object self appare quam materiale

Examples:

Exemples:

steel, as pen material

stal, quam materiale de plum

process of making a pen

process de fabrication de pl.

pen at hand, pen exists

plum parat, plum existe

function of pen, pen writing

function de plum, plum in scrition

clay, jar material

argil, material de cruche

making of a jar

fabrication de cruche

jar itself, jar exists

cruche self, cruch existe

function of jar, jar being used

function de cruche, cruche in usation

household

menage

gold

aure

printing of money

stampation de monete

money, money exists

monete, monete existe

use of money, circulation

usation de moné, circulation

wealth

richess

primordial material

materie primitif

origin of the earth

origine de terre

the earth, the earth exists

terre, terre existe

life of the earth

vive de terre

the world

mund

embryo

embrion

infant/child

infant

adult

adult

elderly, senile

velón, senil

corpse

cadáver

ability to emit sounds

capabilitá emisser sones

origin of speech

origina de parlada

language, speech in contemporary usage

lingue, parlada in stand contemporan

usage of words

usation de paroles

literature

litteratur

Indefinite concepts:

Conceptiones indefinit:

nothing (not in the sense of zero!)

nequo (ne in sens de null!)

origin of something

origina de alqui cose

something, a unit exists

alquicose, unité existe

function of a unit

function de unité

everything

omne

b) Negative exponents.

b) Potenties negativ.

Negative exponents are fractions

Potenties negativ es fractiones

and, keeping with the definition of division, express qualities, for example:

e, conform a definition de division, expresse qualitás, p.e.:

of houses

domal, de dom

of steel

stalin, de stal

of the world

mundal, de mund

of apples

pomal, de pom

language of the world

lingue de mund

philosophic language

lingue filosofic

language of the future

lingue de futur

B. Exponents of figures

B. Potenties figural.

a) Total exponents express the active form of the verb:

a) Potenties total express form activ de verb:

person exists, person is

homo existe, homo es

person chops

homo hacca

person chops tree

homo hacca arbor

the woman knits a sock

femina tricota strump

person marches

homo marcha

horse runs

cavalle curre

clock ticks

horloj tictaca

clock rings

horloj clocha

train moves itself

tren move se

person speaks

homo parla

rooster crows

gallino canta

dog barks

can aboya

bird flies

avio vola

person sees

homo vide

he/she reigns, he/she is a king/queen

il rege

he/she lives

il vive

I make a pen

mi prepara plum

I write

mi scri

I use a pen

mi usa plum

I practice a literary profession

mi practica profession de litterator

I prepare steel for a pen

mi prepara stal por plum

Examples of conjugation:

Exemple de conjugation:

I write, you write, he/she writes

mi scri, tu scri, il scri

we write, you(pl.) write, they write

noi scri, vo scri, ili scri

I will write

mi va scrir

I wrote, I have written

mi fe scrir, mi ha scrit

you will not write

tu ne va scrir

you have not written

tu ne ha scrir

not him/her writes, someone else writes

ne il scri, altri scri

I write now

mi scri nu

now, not now, some other time

nu, ne nu, altriquande

I sit here

mi side ci

he/she stands there in front

il sta ta avan

she lives to the left

illa habita (domicila) ad left

I (masculine)

mi (mascul)

I (feminine), you (feminine)

mi (femina), tu (femina)

I (unspecified gender)

mi (genere indifinit)

I spoke a few times

mi fe parlar quelc vezes

speak!

parla!

I write and think, I write pensively

mi scri e pensa, mi scri pensante

I write and don't think, I write automatically

mi scri (e) ne pensa, mi scri automaticmen

he/she talks with haste

il parla hastante

he/she talks without haste

il parla sin hasta

he/she is in a hurry, he/she is not in a hurry

il hasta, il ne hasta

I study

mi studia

scientist

scientist

student, scholer

student, scolero

professor

professor

Growing exponents [exponents of exponents]:

Potenties crescent:

I prepare to write

mi prepara scrir

I sit to write

mi sedenta me scrir

you go to sleep

tu ea dormir

he/she goes (walks) to reap [the crop]

il ea (marcha) falcear

I want to eat

mi vole manjar

I must walk

mi deve marchar

you can pay

tu posse payar

you may speak

tu have jure parlar

b) Fractional exponents express the passive form of the verb:

b) Potenties fractional expresse forme passive de verb:

I see, I am seen

me vide, mi es videt

the house is seen

dom es videt

I see the house

mi vide dom

the person chops the tree

homo hacca arbor

the tree is chopped by the person

arbor es haccat de homo

the tree is chopped by the person

arbor es haccat de homo

the woman knits a sock

femina tricota strump

the sock is knitted by the woman

strump etricotat de f.

the letter is written

epistol es scrit

speech is spoken

parla es parlat

she loves

illa ama

he/she is loved, someone loves him/her

il es amat, on ama le

I have been loved

mi ha esset amat

I speak

mi parla

you will be spoken of

de tu va esser parlat

I am, I exist

mi es, mi existe

I am created, existence is given to me

mi es creat, a mi es dat existentie

creature

creatur

c) Irrational concepts.

c) Significationes irrational.

spouse

marit

friend

amico

colleague

colleg

member of society

membre de societé

child of the same mother

infant de sam matre

celestial object

ether

the world is created by God

mund es creat per Deo

the forest speaks

forest parla

the clock walks

horloj marcha

d) Imaginary concepts

d) Significationes imaginari

imaginary quantity

quantatitá imaginari

is, exists

es, existe

stops existing, turns itself imaginary

cessa esser, fa -se imaginari

is not, does not exist

ne esse, ne existe

turns itself [real], becomes, stops being imaginary

fa-se, deveni, cessa esser imaginari

day

die

day, which stops being, evening

die, quel cessa esser, vesper

not-day, night

ne-die, nocte

day, which starts, night, which stops being, morning

die, quel comensa, nocte, quel cessa esser, matine

friendship

amcitá

end of friendship, beginning of enmity, argument

cessation de amicitá, origina de inamicitá, querell

enmity

inamicitá

end of enmity, renewal of friendship

cesation de inamicitá, renovation de amicitá

end of enmity is renewal of friendship

cessation de inamicitá es renovation de amicitá

Examples to translate:

Exemples por traducter:

LogarithmsLogaritmation

Logarithms express evolution. For example:

Logaritmation expresse evolution. P.e.:

chopping

haccation

writing

scrition

deformation

deformation

prolongation

prolongation

diminution

deminuation

illumination

illumination

signalisation

signalisation

origin of human from monkeys

origina de homo ex simie

formation of the earth

devenition de terre

formation of the world

devenition de mund

Examples to translate:

Exemples por traducter:

Mixed examples

Exemples mixt.

EquationsEquationes

Equations (and inequalities) are logical judgements:

Equationes (e inegalitá) es logical judicamentes:

a woman is a person

femina es homo

“a chicken is not a bird, and a woman is not a person” (Russian proverb)

"gallina ne es avio, femina ne es homo" (proverbie russ)

an elephant is larger than a horse

elefant es plu grand ca cavali

a mouse is smaller than a cat

mus es plu minim ca cat

a monkey is similar to a human

simio es simil a homo

I will construct a house

mi va constructer dom

he/she has constructed a house of lumber

il ha constructet dom de ligne

a human chops a tree of a building

homo hacca arbor de construction

a human chops a tree for building

homo hacca arbor por constructer

we construct a house in a forest

noi constructe dom in foreste

we construct a house, which is in a forest

noi constructe dom, qui es in foreste

the book you speak of, is it on the table?

parla tu del libre, que it es sur table?

I ask for a book

mi interroga per libre

is the book on the table?

es libre sur table?

yes, the book is on the table!

yes, libre es sur table!

no, the book is not on the table!

né, libre ne es sur table!

Transcendent algebra gives the possibility to deduct mathematically from given expressions all logical consequences. For example:

Li transcendent algebra da li possibilitá deducter matematicmen ex dat expession omni consequenties logical. P.e.:

he/she does not speak signifies something, that he/she has spoken

il ne parla significa alquicose, qui il ha dir

“if the child (of the mother) doesn’t cry, the mother (of the child) does not understand his/her wants (i.e. cries)” (Russian proverb)

"infant (de matre) ne plora, -- matre (de infant) ne comprende (i.e. plora)" (proverbe russ)

"there is no intelligence without language, no language without intelligence" (Max Müller)

"ne es intellectu sin lingue, ne es lingue sin intellectu" (Max Müller)

“intelligence without language and language without intelligence do not exist”

"intellectu sin lingue e. linge sin intellectu ne existe"

intelligence is language, truth

intellectu es lingue, logos

Etc.

E c.

ConclusionConclusion

Gallileo tells us:

Che Gallilei noi lee:

"Philosophy is written in a great book, which stands continually open for all and everyone (I mean the universe),

"Filosofie es scrit in grandissim libre, quel es sempre apert por omni e chascun (mi parla peri li mundo).

But one cannot understand it, who has not learned to read its language and characters, with which it is written.

Ma ne posse comprender it ti, qui avan ne ha aprendet leer su lingue e signes, per queles it es scrit.

And it is written in the language of mathematics, and its characters of triangles, circles and other mathematical figures."

E it es scrit in lingue matematical, e su signes triángules, circules e altri matematical figures."

The present brochure illustratively demonstrates the truth of these words.

Li veritá de ti paroles demonstra illustrativmen li present brochur.

Some examplesEinige BeispieleQuelques exemplesНекоторые примерыMōned näitused

person

Mensch

homme

человекъ

inimene

I, me

ich

je, moi

я

mina

you

du

tu, toi

ты

sina

he, him

er

il

онъ

tema

someone

Jemand

quelq'un

некто

keegi

Jacob Linzbach

Jacob Linzbach

Jacob Linzbach

Я. Линцбахъ

Jakob Linzbach

giant, large person

ein grosser Mensch Riese

gigant, grand homme

человечище

suur inim., hiiglane

dwarf, small person

Zwerg, Menschlein

petit homme, nain

человечекъ

väike inim., härjapōlvlane

me, with me

ich, mit mir

moi, avec moi

я, со мною

mina, minuga

not me, without me

nicht ich, ohne mich

pas moi, sans moi

не я, безъ меня

mitte mina, minuta

I am to the right of you

ich bin rechts von dir

je suis à droite (de toi)

я направо отъ тебя

mina olen sinust paremat kätt

you are to the left of me

du bist links von mir

tu es à ma gauche

ты налево отъ меня

sina oled minus pahemat kätt

he is earlier than you

er ist früher als du

il est plus tôt que toi

онъ раньше тебя

tema on varem kui sina

you are later than him

du bist nach ihm

tu es après lui

ты после него

sina oled hiljem kui tema

two people, people

zwei Menschen, Menschen

deux hommes, des hommes

два человекаб, люди

kaks inimest, inimesed

we, us

wir

nous

мы

meie

you(pl.)

ihr

vous

вы

teie

they

sie

ils

они

nemad

product

Produkt

Produit

произведение

[missing]

friendship

Freundschaft

amitié

дружба

sōprus

company

Genossenschaft

association

товарищество

selts, kompanii

society

Gesellschaft

societé

общество

suurem selts

enmity

Feindschaft

inimitié

вражда

vaen

not company

keine Genossenschaft

pas une association

не товарищество

[missing]

crowd

Volksmenge

foule

толпа

seltsita olek

ratio

Verhältniss, Relation

Relation

отношение

[missing]

something human

etwas mënschliches

quelque chose d'humain

нечто человеческое

midagi inimlist

human society

mensliche Gesellschaft

societé humaine

общество человеческое

inimline seltskond

person of society

Mann der Gesellsch

homme de societé

человекъ общественный, человекъ общества

selts kondline inimene

your friendship

deine Freundschaft

ton amintié

дружба твоя

sinu sōprus

friend

Freund

ami

другъ

sōber

not a friend

kein Freund

pas ami

не другъ

[missing]

enemy

Feind

ennemi

врагъ

[missing]

comrade

Genosse

camarade

товарищъ

seltsiline

seed, embryo

Same, Embrio

semence, embryon

семя, эмбрионъ

seeme, liha

child

Kind

enfant

ребенокъ

laps

mature person

reifer Mensch

homme mûr

зрелый человекъ, совершенное

täieealine

parent

Erwachsener, Alter

personne adulte, parent

родителъ

vanem

deceased, spirit

Verstorbener, Geist

décédé, revenant

усопший, духъ

surnud, waim

the person lives, produces life

der Mensch lebt, erzeugt Kinder

l'homme vit, produit des enfants

человекъ живетъ, производитъ жизнь

inimene elab, sünnitab

the person exists

der Mensch existiert

l'homme existe

человекъ существуетъ

inimene on olemas

the person is alive, produced

der Mensch ist belebt, erzeugt

l'homme est animé, produit

человекъ оживленъ

inimene on elustatud, sünnitatud

I live, we live

ich lebe, wir leben

je vis, nous vivons

я живу, мы живемъ

mina elan, meie elame

you live, you(pl.) live

du lebst, ihr lebt

tu vis, vous vivez

ты живешь, вы живете

sina elad, teie elate

he lives, they live

er lebt, sie leben

il vit, ils vivent

онъ живетъ, они живутъ

tema elab, nemad elavad

I lived, I will live

ich lebte, ich werde leben

je vecus, je vivrai

я жилъ, я буду жить

mina elasin, mina saan elama

end

Abschaffung, Beseitigung, Ende

abolissement, ecartement, fin

прекращение действия

lōppemine

beginning

Erneuerung, Werden, Anfang

renouvellement, naissance, commencement

возобновление, становление

algus, saamine

the person is born, lives, and dies

der Mensch wird geboren, lebt und stirbt

l'homme naît, vit et meurt

человекъ родится, живетъ и умираетъ

ininene sünnib, elab ja sureb

I do not die

ich sterbe nicht

je ne meurs pas

я не умираю

mina ei sure

life

das Leben

la vie

жизнь

elu, elamine

birth

Geburt

la naissance

рождение

sündimine

dying

Sterben

[missing]

умирание

suremine

death

Tod

la mort

смерть

surm

I begin

ich fange an

je commence

я начинаю

mina hakkan peale

I finish

ich endige

je finis

я кончаю

mina lōpetan

physical

leiblich

corporel

плотский

lihalik

childlike

kindlich

enfantin

детский

lapselik

humanlike

menschlich

humain

зрелый

inimlik

adultlike, parental

eterlich

des parent

взрослый, родительский

vanemlik

spiritual

geistlich

spirituel, mourant

духовный

vaimlik

spiritual person

geistlicher Mensch

homme spirituel

человекъ духовный

vaimuline inimene

"man does not live" is an expression of the living

"der Mensch lebt nicht" ist eine Äusserung von Etwas lebende

"l'homme ne vit pas" est une expression de quelque chose de vivant

выражение "человекъ не живетъ" есть отношение ко живущему

üteldes: "inimene ei ela," oletame midagi (1), mis inimese viisi elab (i^i)

dying, mortal

sterbender

mourant

умирающий

surelik